The invasion of Russia by Charles XII of Sweden was a campaign undertaken during the Great Northern War between Sweden and the allied states of Russia, Poland, and Denmark. But there was Riga and the Saxons to consider, and Charles let the moment pass. Part of the Monument to Charles XII in Stockholm, with Charles pointing towards Russia In 1700, Denmark-Norway, Saxony, and Russia united in an alliance against Sweden, using the perceived opportunity as Sweden was ruled by the young and inexperienced King. It demonstrates that the failure of the Swedish army’s invasion was due to the geography of Russia, bad luck and the dogged stubbornness of the Russian people. Sweden in 1700 was the greatest Northern European power and this provoked the jealousy of its neighbors. Charles XII, sometimes Carl (Swedish: Karl XII) or Latinized to Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. “Scorched-Earth tactics” wasn’t much of a tactics at the time: it was a necessity dictated by the need to keep a huge marching army warm at night and to provide at least one meal a day every day for everybody. They adopted a cautious approach, knowing that the elements would help them defeat the Swedes. What happens when Napoleon arrives in 1812 since according to wikipedia Napoleon studied Russian geography and the history of Charles XII's invasion of 1708–1709 and understood the need to bring forward as many supplies as possible. But after the experience of Syria and Ukraine, Russian generals are adjusting their military doctrine to defeat a wider array of possible attacks, which, although less dangerous than all-out invasion, are more likely to They used geography and climate to great effect. The Swedes decided to retreat to their winter camp in Western Ukraine in November 1708. With a kid on the throne, its enemies figured 1700 was the ideal year to attack. While Charles was bogged down in the vast Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the Russian Tsar Peter the Great reformed the Russian military and ironically modeled his army on the Swedish forces. Ivan Mazepa, Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks, managed to secure a vast area independent of the Russians. This war's culmination was the Swedish monarch’s invasion of Russia and his subsequent defeat by Tsar Peter the Great at Poltava (1709). Charles XII spent his childhood amidst luxury. Novgorod and north West Russia was mostly settled by Vikings and Some sources even States Oleg was nothing more than a Scandinavia vassal King. Charles was confronted by a huge Russian army that was numerically superior to his own. of Charles XII's invasion. The reinforcements were attacked by Peter’s army and suffered many casualties and lost many precious cannons. Charles XII of Sweden was the king of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Charles XII took power at the age of 15 in 1697, 7 months after his father, King Charles XI had died. His son became king of Sweden at the age of fifteen. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. This led to the Great Northern War. The Poles and Danes attacked the Swedes in Northern Germany, and the Russians attacked them in the Baltics and thus began the Great Northern War. After the Russians' defeat at Holowczyn, they dramatically changed tactics. This effectively weakened the invading army. “It never seems to work out invading Russia.” READ MORE: These Despots Had Different National Identities at Birth The Swedes were inured to Arctic weather, yet they felt extremely challenging fighting in the Ukrainian Plains. How did Vatican II change the Catholic Church? This was a disaster, and it sealed the fate of the Swedish invasion and the Swedish Empire. [1] Under the House of Vassa the kingdom had expanded greatly. Then there was the strategy of the Russians. Home › Military History › Why did Charles XII of Sweden fail to conquer Russia in 1708? Later, during the Great Northern War (1700 - 1721), the Swedish army invaded the then-Russian territories of Belarus, taking the city of Mogilev. Sweden in 1700 was the greatest Northern European power and this provoked the jealousy of its neighbors. Charles planned an invasion of the Russian heartland, allying himself with Ivan Mazepa, Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks. They all had grievances with the Swedes and resented what they saw as their domination in the Baltic Sea. Charles XI of Sweden had managed to defend the extensive Empire and had greatly expanded its influence. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. By the 1660s the Kingdom of Sweden directly controlled the modern states of Finland and the Baltic States. However, due to the conditions of the 1617 peace treaty, Russia lost its access to the Baltic Sea. The Polish-Swedish War of 1701-1706, also known as Karl XII's invasion of Poland or the Polish front of the Great Northern War, was a conflict in eastern Europe overshadowed by the ongoing Great Northern War fought between the Swedish Empire against the Russian Empire, Denmark-Norway, Saxony and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The first was that he should have invaded Russia after his great victory at Narva. Charles XII invasion of Russia, 1708-1709, https://dailyhistory.org/index.php?title=Why_did_Charles_XII_of_Sweden_fail_to_conquer_Russia_in_1708%3F&oldid=21396. How did the Johnson-Reed Act of 1924 restrict immigration? Today we associate Sweden with liberal values and a peaceful society. 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