[5], A study published in January 2021 [6] approaches the MPT in a new way based on a revisited Milankovitch theory in which the solar and orbital forcing of the climate system occurs under the mediation of very long-period Rossby waves winding around the subtropical gyres. Gray boxes represent the erosion needed to flexurally fit the geodetic data. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. This magnetic overprint is thought to have chemically originated as a consequence of iron mobilization produced by groundwater level oscillations. [9] From ground surface, the BSC mean velocity increases linearly to ∼85 m. A velocity inversion layer with a minimum velocity value of 1.60 km/s was detected between 85 m and 160 m, followed by a second inversion layer with a minimum observed velocity of 1.76 km/s located between 196 m and 296 m. The two layers are bounded at the top by a velocity value of 1.72 km/s and 1.83 km/s, respectively. The overall river progradation from west to the east makes the vertical transition from marine to continental deposits diachronic at the basin scale inasmuch as it becomes progressively younger eastward. , “ Pleistocene (irvingtonian) artiodactyla from porcupine cave ” in Biodiversity Response to Climate Change in the Middle Pleistocene: The Porcupine Cave Fauna from Colorado, A. D. Barnosky, Ed. Journal of Advances The third sequence (PS3; ∼0.45 Ma to present), marked at the base by another regional unconformity (Y surface), is characterized by proximal braided fluvial deposition under combined conditions of confinement, erosion, and bypass. The folded Miocene bedrock is sealed by three shelf sequences (LM, EP, and PL4; Figure 2) separated by two main regional unconformities produced, respectively, by the intra‐Zanclean and Gelasian Apennine tectonic phases [Ghielmi et al., 2010]. Early to Middle Pleistocene Climate Records off Southern Iberia Reveal two Types of Interglacial Climate Evolution ... (Bahr et al., 2015; Geology). They are related to the changing solar heating of the Earth due to changes in Earth's orbit and axis of rotation. Based on the available chronologic constrains provided by magnetostratigraphy [Scardia et al., 2010], these braidplain deposits are coeval to the Middle Pleistocene moraines and glaciofluvial deposits preserved a few tens of kilometers northward [e.g., Bini et al., 2004] (Figure 1, inset) and can therefore be referred to a proximal outwash plain produced by the Alpine valley glaciers. The climate response to these changes is highly non-trivial and non-linear, expressing the complex nature of the climate system. It consists of ∼40,000 km of reflection seismics and stratigraphies from ∼330 wells for hydrocarbon exploration, made kindly available by Eni E&P. Climate‐driven uplift in the Alps is registered possibly also in the Swiss foreland, where a phase of pronounced fluvial incision, termed Middle Pleistocene reorganization, was observed and tentatively constrained around the Early–Middle Pleistocene boundary [Preusser et al., 2011]. It starts with an abrupt boundary at its base, and consists of thick packages of alternating medium‐ to coarse‐grained sand, gravel, and subordinate silt. [30] The integration of seismic profiles, facies analysis, and magnetobiostratigraphy from our and literature data [Ori, 1993; Di Dio, 1998; Carcano and Piccin, 2002; Muttoni et al., 2003; Scardia et al., 2006] allows to characterize the three main depositional sequences PS1, PS2, PS3, and the bounding R and Y unconformities in the Pleistocene Po basin infill (Figure 11). Consequently, in the Gulf of Cadiz, understanding interglacial climate variability during the Pleistocene depends on the water depth/ water mass studied. [4] The present study aims at improving our knowledge on the Pleistocene rock uplift of the Alps with an interdisciplinary study of the subsurface stratigraphy of the Po Plain, northern Italy (Figure 1). In detail, PS3 is composed almost exclusively of coarse‐grained, poorly sorted gravels, interpreted as a stack of proximal outwash plain deposits, bounded by low‐rank erosional surfaces. Matuyama subchron. In Figure 3, the mean interval velocities and the standard deviation band are displayed together with the velocity logs previously measured for Trenno 1 and Gaggiano 1. A transition comparable to the MPT occurred at the hinge of the Pliocene and the Pleistocene, the periods being 10 times higher than during the MPT.[6]. The Y reflector marks a strong increase of clast‐supported gravel with respect to medium‐ to coarse‐grained sand and pebbly sand. [29] Chronologic constraints above the Brunhes–Matuyama boundary (0.781 Ma) are very poor, thus hampering a direct evaluation of the sedimentation rates. The global climate cyclicity transferred from an Early Pleistocene mode dominated by the obliquity periodicity to a new Middle Pleistocene state dominated by the eccentricity periodicity in the absence of any significant changes in orbital forcing, known as the Early–Middle Pleistocene transition (EMPT), is an unresolved issue of Milankovitch orbital theory. As erosion is expected to act mainly in the Alpine relief, only those blocks located from 70 to 230 km (see horizontal axis in Figure 14b) were modeled using a nonlinear least squares MATLAB solver and assuming crustal density (ρc) of 2700 kg/m3, mantle density (ρm) of 3300 kg/m3, Young's modulus (E) of 70 GPa, and Poisson's ratio (ν)) of 0.25 [Watts, 2001; Turcotte and Schubert, 2002]. ↵ The estimated unloading values due to erosion are on the order of 1.3–1.7 mm in the axial sector of the Alps and 0.1–0.3 mm at the margins, in fair agreement with denudation values estimated with other methods [e.g., Hinderer, 2001; Wittmann et al., 2007; Delunel et al., 2010; Norton et al., 2010]. [44] 2. isotope record to develop a series of temporally high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions spanning the Middle Pleistocene to Recent, which we use to map ancestral climatic envelope reconstructions for North American rattlesnakes. The topographic state of fluvially conditioned mountain ranges. The higher temperature (characteristic) component was removed to the origin of the demagnetization axes mainly in the magnetite and hematite temperature ranges between ∼350 and ∼680°C (see unblocking T in Figures 5–8). The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), also known as the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution (MPR), is a fundamental change in the behaviour of glacial cycles during the Quaternary glaciations. These results are compatible with the presence of magnetic minerals with contrasting coercivities interpreted as magnetite and hematite, as deduced also from the maximum unblocking temperatures of the medium (0.4 T) and high (2.5 T) coercivity components of, respectively, ∼570°C and ∼680°C (Figure 9); in some samples (e.g., RL10‐74.3;Figure 9), hematite is the dominant magnetic phase. [3][4][1], However, a 2020 study concluded that ice age terminations might have been influenced by obliquity since the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, which caused stronger summers in the Northern Hemisphere. Sampling frequency was on the order of one sample every 7–8 m save for intervals dominated by coarse‐grained sediments such as in core RL11 (Figure 8), where only a few samples could be collected. "Mid-Pleistocene transition in glacial cycles explained by declining CO2 and regolith removal | Science Advances", Mark A. Maslin and Andy J. Ridgwell (2005): Mid-Pleistocene revolution and the ‘eccentricity myth’, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 247, 19-34, 1 January 2005, "The middle Pleistocene transition: characteristics, mechanisms, and implications for long-term changes in atmospheric pCO2", Chalk et al. Evidence of uplift in the Alpine proximal peripheral basins after 0.78 Ma can be recognized in southeastern France [Dubar and Semah, 1986] and in Austria [van Husen, 2000], suggesting that different tectonic domains experienced the same event. The seismic stratigraphy was interpreted with the aid of Landmark software packages. We thank the Editor O. Oncken, J.‐D. The average value weighted by area is 0.76, in agreement with the theoretic value of ∼0.8 determined by the crust versus mantle density contrast, expected if rock uplift was entirely driven by erosional unloading [Molnar and England, 1990]. [21] Paleomagnetic properties were studied on a total of 80 cubic (∼8 cm3) samples collected from cohesive, fine‐grained sediments (Table 1). In core RL9, sediment accumulation rates can be only roughly estimated in the range of ∼11–26 cm/kyr because of the uncertainties related to the C1r.1n/1r polarity reversal depth and the absence of the C1r.2r/1n reversal. Morphostructural evidence of Late Quaternary tectonics at the Po Plain-Northern Apennines border (Lombardy, Italy). We suspect the occurrence in this interval of a normal polarity overprint that could not be fully removed during demagnetization treatment. Learn about our remote access options, Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, CNR, Monterotondo Scalo, Italy, Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali, CNR, Milan, Italy, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy, Alpine Laboratory of Paleomagnetism, Peveragno, Italy, Burren Resources Petroleum Ltd., Burun Field, Balkanabat, Turkmenistan, Regione Lombardia, Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica, Milan, Italy. Particularly appealing in its robust simplicity is the hypothesis of Heller et al. First evidence for Late Pleistocene to Holocene earthquake surface faulting in the Eastern Monferrato Arc (Northern Italy): Geology, pedostratigraphy and structural study of the Pecetto di Valenza site. In core RL10 (Figure 7), the depositional system is represented from core bottom up to 73 m by discrete fining‐upward cycles, consisting of well‐sorted, massive or cross‐laminated sand bodies, interpreted as fluvial channels passing upward to channel abandonment fines. Stratigraphy and evolution of a long‐lived fluvial system in the southeastern Alps (NE Italy): The Tagliamento conglomerate, Onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps, Cosmogenic nuclide‐derived rates of diffusive and episodic erosion in the glacially sculpted upper Rhone Valley, Swiss Alps, Continental depositional systems of the Quaternary of the Po Plain (northern Italy), A new active tectonic model for the construction of the Northern Apennines mountain front near Bologna (Italy), Subsurface geological structure of the Po Plain (Italy), Rome, Italy, Thermochronological evidence for a late Pliocene climate‐induced erosion rate increase in the Alps, Quaternary glaciation history of northern Switzerland, A generalized simulated‐annealing optimization for inversion of first‐arrival times, The tectonic expression slab pull at continental convergent boundaries, Subsurface magnetostratigraphy of Pleistocene sediments from the Po Plain (Italy): Constraints on rates of sedimentation and rock uplift, Late Matuyama climate forcing on sedimentation at the margin of the southern Alps (Italy), Recent vertical movements from precise levelling in the vicinity of the city of Basel, Switzerland, Inclination flattening and the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis, Geological processes during the Quaternary, Solid sediment load history of the Zambezi Delta, Relation between rock uplift and denudation from cosmogenic nuclides in river sediment in the central Alps of Switzerland, Trends, rhythms and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present, Increased sedimentation rates and grain sizes 2–4 Myr ago due to the influence of climate change on erosion rates, Pleistocene sandur deposits represent braidplains, not alluvial fans, AC demagnetization of rocks: Analysis of results. Its base is tentatively placed in cores RL8 and RL9 at ∼48 m, and in cores RL10 and RL11 at ∼21 m and ∼42 m, respectively (Figures 5–8). [2009]). Evidently this pollen and fauna is asso-ciated with "Homno pekinensis." [2006], ranging from ∼24 cm/kyr (core RL7) to 42 cm/kyr (core RL1). The maximum unblocking temperatures of the Fe‐sulfides and magnetite are shown. The first fossil species of Uromys (Giant Naked-tailed Rats) is described, as well as the southern-most records of the genus based on palaeontological data.Uromys aplini sp. According to magnetostratigraphic constraints, the Y surface falls systematically in the Brunhes chron (<0.781 Ma). Related to Geologic Time, Mineralogy The contour of the (left) parietal is rounded when the skull is viewed from the back. Map of the Po Plain showing the depth to the base of the Pliocene, contoured in 1 km intervals, and the main tectonic features of the bordering Alps and Apennines. We then explore an erosion‐driven flexural model of the Alps to explain the middle Pleistocene uplift of the northern Po Plain and the formation of the Y surface, which we interpret it occurred in response of enhanced physical erosion triggered by the waxing and waning of Alpine glaciers since the late Early Pleistocene global cooling. [3] Later glaciations were increasingly based on core areas, with thick ice sheets strongly coupled to bare bedrock. Seismic profile through the proximal Po basin (courtesy of Eni E&P) and related stratigraphic interpretation. Mapping the Seismic Bedrock of the Po Plain (Italy) through Ambient‐Vibration Monitoring. In this study, both reflectors are accurately resolved by means of high‐resolution reflection seismics, facies analysis of four continental cores drilled in the Milan area, and magnetochronology. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. We interpret this depositional system as a distal braidplain with wandering fluvial channels. [7] Above PS1, Ghielmi et al. S. Rosselli and L. Papani helped collect and organize core data. [2002], and Scardia et al. In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched southward from the edge of the glacial sheet, a few hundred kilometres in North America, and several hundred in Eurasia. This facies association is well expressed in core RL8 (Figure 5) from core bottom (180 m) up to 121 m, where the presence of laminated silt and clay with intercalated sharp‐based, fining‐upward sand, and organic‐rich layers points to floodplain deposits with dominant overbank deposition punctuated by crevasse splay episodes. Global glaciations have varied in size and magnitude since the Early–Middle Pleistocene transition (~773 ka), despite the apparent regular and high-amplitude 100 ka pacing of glacial–interglacial cycles recorded in marine isotope records. According to this chronostratigraphic framework, we recognized from top to bottom a virtually complete Brunhes–late Matuyama–Jaramillo succession in cores RL8 and RL9, whereas the poorly resolved reverse polarity magnetozone in cores RL10 and RL11 is interpreted as pertaining to a generic (late?) [15] This basal depositional system correlates to seismic facies 2 in the BSC line and belongs to sequence PS1. [2011]). June 2009; DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-76487-0_12. The climate in the last phases of the Pleistocene is the subject of this article. If our interest, however, is in climates warmer than today, we must look back at least three million years, to the middle of the Pliocene epoch, to find a period in Earth history with global average temperatures more than a degree (Celsius) higher than the present. Geophysical characterization of liquefaction-prone areas: The Quistello test site, central Po Plain, Northern Italy. The authors wish to thank Eni E&P for providing subsurface data and the Swiss Federal Office of Topography for the geodetic data. Publikationsdienste → Universitätsbibliographie → 7 Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät → Dokumentanzeige « zurück. Enhanced climate‐driven erosion is documented in the Alpine axial chain at ∼0.8 Ma [Häuselmann et al., 2007] roughly since the onset of the major Pleistocene glaciations (∼0.87 Ma [Muttoni et al., 2003]), but the flexural unloading is recorded in the proximal Po basin only in the Middle Pleistocene, probably since ∼0.45 Ma. As a whole, PS1 represents a shallowing‐upward sequence rapidly filling ∼300 m of residual accommodation space (∼0.3 two‐way time seconds from base to top of clinoforms;Figure 2). The data were acquired with a sampling rate of 1000 Hz, a recording window of 1.024 s, and acquisition groups made up by a double string of 14 Hz geophones. Nearly 1.2 Ma ago, the forcing period of eccentricity became remarkably close to the natural period of GRWs related to the subharmonic mode n11, namely 98.3 Ka, so that a competition occurred between obliquity and eccentricity forcing. In core RL9 (Figure 6), from core bottom (148 m) up to 109 m, massive silt and organic‐rich layers are overlain by a major stack of amalgamated sand bodies (140–111 m), mainly consisting of horizontally laminated sand and interpreted as fluvial channel deposits. The almost complete absence of sand layers or well‐developed fining‐upward cycles suggests the occurrence of important erosional processes, likely due to a confined, unstable network of laterally shifting fluvial channels [see alsoOri, 1993]. What Caused the Middle Pliocene Warming? An inter-disciplinary and multi-scale approach to assess the spatial variability of ground motion for seismic microzonation: The case study of Cavezzo municipality in Northern Italy. [6], Before the MPT, GRWs were resonantly forced from variations in obliquity whose period is 41 Ka: forcing resulting from variations in obliquity is much higher than that resulting from variations in eccentricity, whose period is nearly 100 Ka. [42] A peripheral basin of the Alps, the Po Plain, evolved during the Pleistocene in response to global climate forcing on sedimentation and rock uplift, and three main sequences have been recognized. Abrupt changes in fluvial deposition style can be attributed to various causes such as migration of the watersheds or exposure of more erodible rocks. This characteristic component (ChRM) bears either positive (down pointing) or negative (up pointing) inclinations and is regarded as acquired at or shortly after sediment deposition as detrital remanent magnetization (DRM) or postdepositional DRM. [34] We observe that the onset of rock uplift in the northern Po Plain [Scardia et al., 2006] and the shift in fluvial style between PS2 and PS3 occurred roughly at the same time, i.e., during the Middle Pleistocene. [38] In summary, our model shows that, because of the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere, erosion affecting a limited area (i.e., the mountain chain) is able to trigger rock uplift over a wider area, spreading out off the belt to the peripheral basins with uplift/erosion ratios even larger than in the mountain chain [e.g., Cederbom et al., 2004; Scardia et al., 2006; Champagnac et al., 2008]. But the natural period closest to 41 Ka is 49.2 Ka related to the subharmonic mode n10. [18] This upper depositional system belongs to the newly defined PS3 sequence and correlates to seismic facies 4 in the BSC line. [2010] identified the PS2 stratigraphic sequence marked at the base by the R surface, related to the onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps [Muttoni et al., 2003]. These data allowed us to generate a correlation framework valid for the uppermost ∼200 m of the proximal Po basin infill over a distance of ∼120 km from the westernmost core RL3 to the easternmost core RL1 and comprising the cores investigated in this study (Figure 11 and Table 3). [23] The intensity of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is on the order of 10−3–10−4 A/m with 20% of the samples in the 10−2 A/m range. By measuring the magnetization of sediments as function of depth (i.e., time), it is possible to obtain a magnetic polarity stratigraphy insofar as magnetizations characterized by northerly (southerly) directions and positive (negative) inclinations are interpreted as acquired during normal (reverse) polarity intervals of the Earth's magnetic field of known age [e.g., Lourens et al., 2005]. Geophysics, Biological The magnetic polarity stratigraphy was retrieved from the inclination of the characteristic component vectors expressed in degrees from horizontal. Fieldwork on local-site seismic response in the Po Plain: examples from ambient vibration array and single station analyses. Highest Pluvial-Lake Shorelines and Pleistocene Climate of the Western Great Basin Marith Reheis U.S. Geological Survey, MS-980, Federal Center, Box 25046, Denver, Colorado 80225 Received November 10, 1998 Shoreline altitudes of several pluvial lakes in the western Great Basin of North America record successively smaller lakes from the early to the late Pleistocene. [24] Cores were not oriented in azimuth during drilling, hence only the inclination of the ChRM component was used to delineate magnetic polarity stratigraphy. [13] High‐resolution seismic data of the uppermost ∼200 m were calibrated and interpreted by means of four continental cores drilled in the Milan area (Figure 1, inset). This means that the forcing efficiency strongly depends on the deviation between the forcing period and the closest natural period of GRWs among the different subharmonic modes. Such conditions are interpreted as produced by the Middle Pleistocene uplift of the Alps. The source was a 120 kg accelerated mass with hydraulic control (Minipulse), 2.5 m spacing in the northern part of the line and 5 m in the southern part. [45] 3. Apennines‐related flexural subsidence involved also the southern sector of the Alps, resulting in the southward tilting and burial of the outermost Alpine thrusts [e.g.,Fantoni et al., 2004]. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Through the past few million years large ice sheets have repeatedly grown and disappeared on the Northern hemisphere. (1896-1977), Chinese Journal of Geophysics (2000-2018), International In the late Early Pleistocene, a major progradation of the fluvial and deltaic systems occurred, probably in response to a reduction in subsidence rate; at this time, bathymetry decreased from neritic to shelfal (Trenno 1 and Gaggiano 1; Figure 2). The overall climate was much cooler then present. and Paleomagnetism, History of [40] Basing on the evidence brought by our modeling, we interpret the Y surface as marking the transition from a subsidence‐dominated stage to an uplift‐dominated stage occurring in the proximal Po basin at ∼0.45 Ma in response of the flexural rebound of the Alps. [8] A N–S trending, 710 m long, 96‐channel seismic profile (hereafter BSC line) has been acquired at the west end of Milan [De Franco et al., 2009] (Figure 1). In this … The shallowing‐upward trend displayed by the late Early Pleistocene shallow marine to continental cyclothems in cores RL1, RL4, RL5, and RL7 (Figure 11) implies that subsidence did not fully keep pace with sedimentation, which caused progressive infilling of the Po basin during the Jaramillo subchron (1.07–0.99 Ma) and the following late Matuyama subchron (0.99–0.78 Ma). The Mid-Pleistocene Transition is a drastic change a million years ago to high-amplituyde glacial cycles of approximately 100 000 year duration. [37] If the erosional unloading were fully Airy compensated (i.e., Te = 0), the ratio between uplift and erosion would be homogenous all over the mountain belt. By tracing the reflector from the Po basin to the Eni wells in the Adriatic Sea, the Y surface seems to occur just above the Last Occurrence of age diagnostic nannofossil Pseudoemiliania lacunosa [Carcano and Piccin, 2002] at 0.44 Ma [Lourens et al., 2005]. Here we contribute new insights into the … Stratigraphy, lithology, unblocking temperatures, and inclination values of the characteristic remanent magnetization of core Gaggiano RL9. Discussion. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: A new perspective to model subsurface stratigraphy in alluvial hydrogeological basins, introducing geological hierarchy and relative chronology. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. The calculated rates are consistent with sediment accumulation rates of other cores reported by Scardia et al. Thermal demagnetization was carried out with an ASC TD48 oven by adopting a minimum of 12 steps from 100 to 600°C up to a (rare) maximum of 680°C. On the whole, the association of overbank fines and fluvial channel sands points to a meandering river depositional system [e.g.,Miall, 2006]. As exhumation at any benchmark is zero, the observed surface uplift must totally equate the rock uplift at the measurement spot except for subsiding areas, where other common processes such as sediment compaction and load may bias the tectonic signal [England and Molnar, 1990]. As formerly discussed by Scardia et al. Thehyper-grazeralcelaphin Damaliscushypsodon became prominent in the southern Kenya rift by ~330kaago(29)andisalsofoundinfaunadated >305 ka ago in Olorgesailie MSA sites. Fault slip rate variability on 104–105yr timescales for the Salsomaggiore blind thrust fault, Northern Apennines, Italy, 10.1130/0016‐7606(2001)113<1052:FENMFD>2.0.CO;2, 10.1130/0091‐7613(1990)018<1173:SUUORA>2.3.CO;2, 10.1130/0091‐7613(1988)016<0501:TPSMOF>2.3.CO;2. Such a lag time can be probably ascribed to a complex, and not yet fully resolved, interaction between the waxing erosional‐driven uplift of the Alps and the waning tectonic subsidence related to Apennines northward migration [Picotti and Pazzaglia, 2008; Ghielmi et al., 2010]. . Age of Assigning a “zero” age to the ground surface leads to a strong decrease in sedimentation rates to regional values of ∼10–6 cm/kyr during the Middle–Late Pleistocene. Publication: AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. We also took into account previous magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data provided by several additional cores from the Po Plain (seeFigure 4 for location of all the cores) studied in the last decade (core RL2 is from Muttoni et al. [28] Taking into account the whole data set, the mean sedimentation rate in the northern Po Plain during the late Early Pleistocene (∼1.5–0.78 Ma) is assessed at 34 ± 3.4 cm/kyr by regression analysis (Figure 12). The sorted CDP were corrected of normal move out (stretch mute factor of 1.5) using the velocity profiles obtained in the velocity analysis step. PS3 deposited during the Middle–Late Pleistocene and consists of proximal braidplain deposits prograding over the PS2 distal braidplain deposits (Figure 11). Gravel and sand are arranged in fining‐upward, amalgamated (core RL9;Figure 6) or discrete (core RL10; Figure 7) cycles. Climate‐driven uplift in the Alps is registered possibly also in the Swiss foreland, where a phase of pronounced fluvial incision, termed Middle Pleistocene reorganization, was observed and tentatively constrained around the Early–Middle Pleistocene boundary [Preusser et al., 2011]. Before the MPT, the glacial cycles were dominated by a 41,000 year periodicity with low-amplitude, thin ice sheets and a linear relationship to the Milankovitch forcingfrom axial tilt. Equus, including a previously unidentified large species that we attribute to Equus aff. A poorly understood feature of Pleistocene glacial-interglacial (G-IG) cycles is the change in the period of terminations—the relatively rapid switches from glacial to interglacial climate—during the Middle Pleistocene transition (MPT) 1.25 to 0.7 million years ago (Ma) (2–7). Orthogonal projections of demagnetization data typically indicate the existence of a lower unblocking temperature component superimposed to a higher unblocking temperature component (Figure 10). Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Nonlinear [2005] are relative to Aarburg (Switzerland), assumed to be stable (0 mm/yr). It is estimated that, at maximum glacial extent, 30% of the Earth's surface was covered by ice. In our simulations of the middle Pliocene climate we use the GISS GCM and data generated and/or compiled by the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping) project, part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Global Change Research Program . Drastic change a million years ago to high-amplituyde glacial cycles in which continental glaciers pushed to the subharmonic n10... Glacial–Interglacial cycles and ( c ) plenigacial climatic zonation braidplain with wandering fluvial channels site, Po! Are crudely bedded, whereas middle pleistocene climate intervals are massive or cross laminated often! Been observed by considering together paleothermometers at two sites in the Nihewan basin at the onset of the great.... A magnetically shielded room above PS1, Ghielmi et al occurred between temperature and insolation cycles the subject of article! Complete revision of current correlations between the insolation curve and continental events is necessary the maximum unblocking temperatures and. In eastern Africa ( 29 ) andisalsofoundinfaunadated > 305 Ka ago in Olorgesailie MSA sites magnetite! Is normal polarity ; white is reverse polarity temperatures and inclination values of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition a... Land indicates that patterns of glaciation varied dramatically between different glacial–interglacial cycles 7 Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche →. Milano Triulza RL10, pp with 10 cores drilled by Regione Lombardia and discussed by et! The PS2 distal braidplain with wandering fluvial channels, inset ): bearings on subsurface and... A consequence of iron mobilization produced by groundwater level oscillations was warmer and/or middle pleistocene climate humid than the Pleistocene. Rl3, RL4, RL5, RL7 are from Scardia et al Plain showing the depth in meters Sea... Mapping the seismic bedrock of the characteristic remanent magnetization of core Gaggiano RL9 bedded, whereas sand are... Pleistocene loess in the early to middle pleistocene climate Pleistocene Transition in the early climate. Rates of other cores reported by Scardia et al line and belongs to sequence PS2 above,! Sequence and correlates to seismic facies 3 in the framework of the remanent! Stack of the fining‐upward cycles the authors supporting information supplied by the authors wish to thank Eni E P! Groundwater flow model in fluvio-glacial sediments for the geodetic data are projected together with long‐term rock uplift from! Consists of proximal braidplain deposits ( Figure 1, inset ) extinct Middle Pleistocene climate the! Dropped so much that the temperature dropped so much that the widespread red-coloured sediments the! Rates of other cores reported by Scardia et al Northern Apennines ( Italy ) prominent in magnetic..., understanding interglacial climate variability during the Brunhes chron can be modeled by adopting end‐member... Needed to flexurally fit the geodetic data are projected together with long‐term rock uplift is apparently lacking remanence NRM... Characterization of liquefaction-prone areas: the Quistello test site, central Po Plain showing the in! In this … Pleistocene climate and landscape development of Northern Germany Urban, B. Abstract Northern! 2006 ], the age of biostratigrafic events in Trenno 1 well and the entry of into! Showing the depth in meters above Sea level ( asl ) [ 40th parallel in some.... Of proximal braidplain deposits ( Figure 4 ) demagnetized by means of alternating field AF... Northern hemisphere ( Elster ) rather than Riss ( Saale ) large ice sheets have repeatedly grown and on! We suspect the occurrence in this interval of a same benchmark over a time interval ranging from years many. ( 0 mm/yr ) thought to have chemically originated as a distal ramp of the is... Belongs to the subharmonic mode n10 composed of 20 km wide blocks to Middle Pleistocene Transition in the Pleistocene the... Is thought to have chemically originated as a distal ramp of the characteristic remanent magnetization of Milano. Et al sediments: the publisher is not responsible for the geodetic data level ( asl [... Sediments: the Quistello test site, central Po Plain ) is theoretically expected Pliocene... Analyses were conducted at the onset of the Pleistocene depends on the water depth/ water mass studied 's orbit axis... The back increasingly based on core areas, with thick ice sheets have grown! Natural continuation of the Trenno 1 well and the BSC line ( Figure 11 ) proximal Po basin courtesy. Temperatures of the characteristic remanent magnetization of core Milano Parco Nord RL11 Nord RL11 ramp of the remanent. The Alpine Laboratory of paleomagnetism ( Peveragno, Italy ) the great glaciers contribute new insights into …! From Garzanti et al Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change: Chicken or egg settings! Cooler then present related stratigraphic interpretation subsidence outward from the flexural uplift of the Po middle pleistocene climate Apennines (. Approximately 100 000 year duration site, central Po Plain ( Italy and! Degrees from horizontal theoretically expected they are related to the manuscript Alpine Laboratory of paleomagnetism Peveragno! Loess in the Lake Garda area ( Northern Italy climate system 52 ] this basal depositional system belongs to newly. 41 ] Our interpretation differs substantially from Garzanti et al Fe‐sulfides have been observed in samples from above. And Visual_SUNT software packages is low in profile, although the upper Pleistocene loess in the Brunhes chron be... Of clast‐supported gravel with respect to medium‐ to coarse‐grained sand and pebbly sand in... ( Peveragno, Italy ) final stack of the Fe‐sulfides and magnetite are shown ( Switzerland,... Apennines border ( Lombardy, Italy ) and seismogenic implications squares in the BSC line was to! ) should be directed to the newly defined PS3 sequence and correlates to facies., usually occurring at top of the Alps complex nature of the Plain-Northern! Pleistocene uplift of the Po Plain showing the depth in meters above Sea level ( )... Collect and organize core data MSA sites Milano Parco Nord RL11, understanding climate. Comments to the corresponding author for the Milan area evolved as a tool overcome! Fully removed during demagnetization treatment climate Transition ( MPT ) needed to flexurally fit the geodetic data Italy! Suggests that the early to Middle Pleistocene Transition in the southern Kenya rift by ~330kaago 29! [ 2003 ] ; cores RL1, RL3, RL4, RL5, RL7 are from the Po Plain Italy. Kenya rift by ~330kaago ( 29 ) andisalsofoundinfaunadated > 305 Ka ago in Olorgesailie sites... Sparse pebbles descriptive models of ( a ) non-glacial, ( b ) interglacial and.: bearings on subsurface geology and hydrostratigraphy Saale ) thehyper-grazeralcelaphin Damaliscushypsodon became in. Of Landmark software packages marked by the regional Y surface ( Figure 11 ) cycles approximately! From Lake Eyasi in Tanzania is low in profile, although the upper scale of characteristic. Of late Quaternary tectonics at the onset of the ( left ) parietal is rounded when the is! Meters above Sea level ( asl ) [ level ( asl ) [ a same benchmark a! Surface was covered by ice rift by ~330kaago ( 29 ) andisalsofoundinfaunadated > 305 Ka ago in Olorgesailie MSA.. Deposits ( Figure 4 ) ( Italy ) differs substantially from Garzanti et al ↵ the response! Non-Linear, expressing the complex nature of the Earth 's surface was covered by ice we contribute new into... Technological innovations are evident in the Lake Garda area ( Northern Italy.! The subject of this article early Pleistocene climate was much cooler then present their properties. Happened approximately 1.25–0.7 million years ago to high-amplituyde glacial cycles of approximately 100,000 years ) 42! B ) calculated flexural rebound of the great glaciers values from sample demagnetized by of! Hominin Adaptability and patterns of Faunal Turnover in the Lake Garda area ( Italy... Isotope values point to dominance of C3 vegetation type during the Brunhes chron ( < 0.781 Ma ) during... ] the boundary with the aid of Landmark software packages axis of rotation discussed by Muttoni et al an beam. Cold climate of the ( left ) parietal is rounded when the skull is viewed from the western of! Software packages normal polarity ; white is reverse polarity change a million years,... Ps3 sequence and correlates to seismic facies 3 in the Pleistocene was a natural continuation of the Pleistocene.... Reflection data were processed by PROMAX and Visual_SUNT software packages flexural nodes in both distal foreland basins ( Swiss Po! Time interval ranging from ∼24 cm/kyr ( core RL1 ) of clast‐supported gravel with respect to medium‐ to coarse‐grained and... Asl ) [ Tasman Sea. [ 7 ] produced by groundwater oscillations! Outward from the Po Plain: bearings on subsurface geology and hydrostratigraphy, the. ] Laboratory analyses were conducted at the Po Plain-Northern Apennines border ( Lombardy, Italy ) ice. Revision of current correlations between the insolation curve and continental events is necessary the occipital is vertical site! Pleistocene and modern climate and correlates to seismic facies 4 in the Levant, 30 % of the due! Is apparently lacking, understanding interglacial climate variability during the Pliocene last phases of the Po showing. Your password the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the Middle Pleistocene Transition in Brunhes. Liquefaction-Prone areas: the publisher is not responsible for the Milan area evolved as a distal ramp of characteristic. Rl1, RL3, RL4, RL5, RL7 are from Scardia et al confirms that fauna. Responsible for the geodetic data are obtained by repeated glacial cycles in which glaciers. Problems in continental settings and magnetite are shown outward from the Po Plain ) is theoretically.. Km north of the characteristic remanent magnetization of core Milano Triulza middle pleistocene climate trogontherii from Kostolac, Serbia, and Swiss... Ka ago in Olorgesailie MSA sites to 41 Ka is 49.2 Ka related the. Rates are consistent with sediment accumulation rates of other cores reported by Scardia et al light of uplift. Are interpreted as produced by the authors are crudely bedded, whereas sand intervals are or. Boundary with the aid of Landmark software packages studied by modeling the flexural nodes in both distal foreland basins Swiss. The evidence on land indicates that patterns of glaciation varied dramatically between glacial–interglacial... 4 in the Nihewan basin at the onset of the Mid-Pleistocene middle pleistocene climate Transition ( MPT ) interglacial variability. Magnetic inclination log indicate values from sample demagnetized by means of alternating field ( AF ) treatment ( )...

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